Thursday, September 12, 2019


Dear Supporters:

There are important revelations of the Peltier saga that simply cannot be ignored or dismissed.

In early August one of Peltier’s attorneys, Larry Hildes of Bellingham, Washington, did a radio interview.

What follows are a few, of many other, direct quotes followed by factual responses challenging Hildes’s claims:

The claims: Somebody & the FBI admitted:

“And somebody apparently shot the agents from point blank range from a location where Leonard was not, with a gun that the FBI admitted he did not have or use.”“And they were killed by someone who apparently came up behind them in their vehicle. Leonard was a long distance away on the top of a ridge, nowhere near them and did not hit them with any shots that he fired.”

The Facts: Mr. X

Hildes is obviously referring to the years’ long lie of Peltier’s only real alibi, the fabrication of the fictitious Mr. X. For nearly two decades Peltier claimed that someone they knew was bringing dynamite to the AIM camp, was followed by the Agents onto the Jumping Bull property, engaged and wounded the agents, shot them at point-blank range and drove off in the infamous red pickup.

This episode was described in Peter Matthiessen’s In the Spirit of Crazy Horse and in Robert Redford’s film Incident at Oglala. In the film, AIM protagonist and participant that day was Bob Robideau who for six minutes and fifty-two seconds goes into great detail describing what he saw of Mr. X’s actions, and in the very next filmed sequence Leonard Peltier proclaims “This story is true.”

Well, it wasn’t then or now. And how do we know this?

In 1995 another AIM protagonist and participant that day, Dino Butler came out publicly in a Native American publication and said “That is totally false. Totally untrue. That never happened.” (Footnote 1)

It isn’t curious at all that in Peltier’s autobiographyPrison Writings, he offers all manner of excuses and explanations but—and not by accident, never mentions Mr. X. Wonder why?

And then there’s another—still current Peltier attorney, Michael Kuzma, who in a November 3, 2012 lengthy radio interview put the Mr. X lie permanently to rest, “From what I understand now its been determined that the Mr. X story was concocted.” (Fn. 2)

 “Concocted” is just another way of saying; yes it was a lie, a lie woven into the fabric of Peltier folklore. 

Peltier’s ‘defense committee,’ along with its website has changed a number of times and moved away from verbalizing the Mr. X fairytale. On May 23, 2000 the then Leonard Peltier Defense Committee stated “Mr. X has long been a controversial topic by both supporters of Leonard Peltier and those who oppose his release.” Controversial? A gross understatement for certain. Even today, the ILPDC’s most current website—of course with flagrant misinformation, has only this to offer regarding the killing of the agents:

“When the skirmish ended, the two FBI agents were dead. The U.S. Government claims they had been wounded and then shot through their heads at close range.”*

That’s it, no “somebody” who “came up behind them.” 

The Facts: FBI admitted

The FBI and government never stated that Peltier did not have or use the ‘’gun” (the Wichita AR-15) to kill Agents’ Coler and Williams.

To the contrary, the government contended at trial and on appeal that Peltier used the Wichita AR-15 to first fire at the Agents and that the bolt mechanism of this weapon was matched to 114 shell casings, thirty-nine of which were introduced as evidence at Peltier’s trial as part of the Exhibit 34 series. One of these was the bullet casing found in the trunk of Agent Coler’s vehicle (Trial Exhibit 34B). Further, the government stated in a brief that;

“The trial witnesses unanimously testified that there was only one AR-15 in the compound prior to the murders, that this weapon was used exclusively by Leonard Peltier and was carried out by him after the murders.” 

Based on a later released (after the trial) FBI Laboratory Teletype dated October 2, 1975, Peltier appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit claiming that this document contradicted other evidence, including a later October 31, 1975 FBI Laboratory Report (that was introduced at trial) as a possible ‘Brady’ violation. 

The 8thCircuit decision stated: 

We affirmed the conviction on September 14, 1978…In affirming we too accepted the government’s theory that both agents had been killed with a high-velocity weapon fired at point-blank range at a time when the men were seriously wounded and unable to defend themselves. We then held that the evidence was sufficient for the jury to find Peltier responsible for the murders.”

Nonetheless, the 8thCircuit remanded the appeal back to the District Court for an evidentiary (ballistics) hearing held in October 1984. The three-day hearing reviewed in detail the ballistics evidence concluding that the October 2, 1975 Teletype would not have affected the outcome of the trial. 

However, Peltier appealed that District Court decision to the 8thCircuit again. The 8thCircuit Court then further concluded:

Yet, we are bound by the Bagley test requiring that we be convinced, from a review of the entire record, that had the data and records withheld been made available, the jury probably would have reached a different result. We have not been so convinced.”

The court also significantly added:

 “When all is said and done, however, a few simple but very important facts remain. The casing introduced into evidence had in fact been extracted from the Wichita AR-15. This point was not disputed; although the defense had its own ballistics expert, it offered no contrary evidence.” (Fn. 3)

Clearly, the FBI and the Government never stated that Peltier “did not have or use” “a gun” (the Wichita AR-15).

The Claim: Supposedly—guns blazing—at the compound

“He has been in federal prison now for forty-four years for supposedly shooting at two FBI Agents who stormed the reservation with guns blazing supposedly looking for a man who had stolen a pair of boots and was involved in a minor burglary ring.” “I mean, as you say to come in looking for Jimmy Eagle, who wasn’t there and a pair of cowboy boots that he supposedly stole, with guns blazing, firing at the compound where mostly AIM folks were staying and trying to kill people.”

The Facts: Supposedly

Well, that’s not quite how it happened. There was no “supposedly” in Peltier’s conviction. Peltier was tried and convicted and his conviction and sentence upheld through over a dozen appeals. 

Among other similar appellate conclusions was that: 

The record as a whole leaves no doubt that the jury accepted the government’s theory that Peltier had personally killed the two agents, after they were seriously wounded, by shooting them at point blank range with an AR-15 rifle.” 
[Rule 35 Motion, 8th Circuit, 12/18/02]

The Facts: Guns blazing

It is well established that there was an eyewitness to exactly how the confrontation on the Jumping Bull property began. There is no disputing that Agent Ron Williams was overheard on the radio by personnel in the Rapid City Resident Agency and those within radio range as he was trying to describe exactly where they were and that those in the vehicle they followed from Highway 18 had stopped, gotten out and looked like they were about to fire on them. They heard Ron say that they needed help or they would be dead, they heard the gunfire, and Ron say, “I’ve been hit.” 

The Facts: firing at the compound…to kill people

First, to make a public statement that the Agents were there to kill people is disingenuous.  

Secondly, the AIM members were in a campsite (referred to as tent city) located along White Clay Creek in a wooded ravine a few hundred yards over rolling terrain from where the Agents were initially attacked and taken under fire.  It would be physically and geographically impossible for the Agents to have been “firing at the compound where mostly AIM folks were staying.”

* * *
In a letter dated January 15, 2016, among other issues, Hildes  stated:

“As you have done for far too many years, you have attempted to insert yourself into Mr. Peltier’s case, and first Amendment expression with patently untrue statements, incendiary characterizations, threats, and just plain lies.  In publishing your deliberately false statements to numerous third parties including government officials and the media, you have intentionally and maliciously severely harmed Mr. Peltier, and it is our intention to take legal action accordingly.”

It is clearly evident that Peltier has made himself into a public figure with all manner of public statements, media interviews, press releases, books, solicitations (for allegedly tax-deductible donations. Strangely, on the ‘donate’ page of Peltier’s website there is no mention of donations being tax-deducible) for his “legal defense” (a matter that has been long resolved) and scarcely documented charitable activities. As a public figure Peltier has acquired notoriety through controversy of his own making. His public pronouncements are subject to scrutiny to a greater extent than a private individual.

Offering opinions and analysis based on Peltier’s public assertions should be expected by public figures, especially when they contradict the legal record, prior statements, are obvious fabrications or perceptible admissions of guilt.

Untrue statements and incendiary characterizations?” Highlighting the many false statements and fabrications may sound incendiary to Peltier but we cannot ignore the fact that Peltier is an unrepentant convicted double murderer. Unrepentant because his few attempts at reconciliation to his victim’s families have been shallow and self-indulging (Fn. 4), and a convicted double murderer as the appellate record repeatedly affirmed. 
(Fn. 5)

Threats?” Peltier has never been threatened by anything published by the No Parole Peltier Association (NPPA). 

Just plain lies?” Peltier would be unable to identify any lies within the hundreds of pages of editorial essays and blogs (that expose decades of myth and folklore and contain abundant footnotes and references to primary sources).

The NPPA has not “inserted” itself into the Peltier case but has acted from its inception on April 30, 2000 for two purposes; to challenge the fabrications emanating from decades of the Peltier fa├žade and his denigration of his victims but most importantly to act as a victim’s rights advocate by honoring the memory and sacrifice of Jack Coler and Ron Williams who were severely wounded in an unprovoked attack and then brutally murdered in the line of duty.

“In the Spirit of Coler and Williams”
Ed Woods

2) This is a lengthy and detailed blog/essay about Peltier attorney, Michael Kuzma’s radio interview:
3) Appeal from evidentiary hearing
4) Prison Writings, pp. 13-15 (as well at other similar statements)

*Yet in total contradiction of the facts and Peltier’s erroneous claims, the Peltier website absurdly has Redford’s Incident at Oglala available for viewing. 

September 12, 2019 Peltier turns seventy-five. Both Jack and Ron would have been seventy-two but they were robbed of their last forty-four years.

Friday, August 9, 2019

AUGUST 9, 1979: Three FBI Agents die in the line-of-duty

Dear Supporters:

(This blog is not about Leonard Peltier and the unprovoked attack, wounding and brutal murder of Special Agents Jack R. Coler and Ronald A. Williams.)

Forty years ago marks the worst day in FBI history when three Agents were killed on the same day in two separate incidents, and like most tragedies it all began at another time and place.   

Chicago, September 17, 1978, 6:00am: Michael Guyon, a career criminal and his nineteen year old brother Melvin, who was already a fugitive from felony charges in Cleveland, were on the prowl for easy prey and watched as two sisters finished their late shift at a local discotheque; the older a waitress, the younger a dancer and a virgin. They walked arm in arm pressed together against the morning chill. Nearing an alleyway they were attacked and forced at gunpoint into Guyon’s car and driven to a deserted industrial parking lot at 43rdand Halstead where they were both violently raped and robbed. They were at least given thirty cents each for bus fare and dropped off at a nearby stop.

Melvin Guyon fled Chicago and returned to his girlfriend and their two children in Cleveland. Michael was arrested a few weeks later suspected of abducting a 4 ½ year old.

By late-October the Guyon brothers were identified and local warrants for rape, robbery and kidnapping were issued along with a federal Unlawful Flight to Avoid Prosecution (UFAP) warrant for Melvin Bay Guyon.    

The San Diego Division covers the Imperial Valley of Southeastern California along the Mexican border. The Valley is richly agrarian and sparsely populated with a relatively low crime rate. The area’s largest town and county seat, El Centro, was the location of the Bureau’s two-man Resident Agency and because of its remote location and the need for bi-lingual Spanish speakers the RA was among the Bureau’s hardship assignments.

In 1979 the RA was on the second floor of a commercial building, referred to as the KXO building, the location of a local radio station. The building also had a bank and several other businesses, including an insurance company.

The RA was staffed by two experienced Agents; J. Robert Porter and Charles W. Elmore.

Bob Porter, the father of five, was a life-long member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. His involvement with the Mormon faith dated back to his great-great grandfather in the mid 1800s. Bob participated on Mormon missions and became a Bishop in the church. Originally from Arizona, Bob served in the U.S. Army and later earned a Bachelor’s degree and taught high school Spanish in Tucson. Bob entered the Bureau in June 1967 and was assigned to four offices before being transferred to El Centro. While assigned to the San Juan Division Bob earned a Master of Science Degree. A consummate professional and gentleman, Bob was well liked and respected among his peers and the citizens he encountered.

According to his family, Chuck Elmore was enamored with the FBI and from childhood wanted to be an FBI Agent. A native of Seattle, Chuck attended the University of Washington with the Naval ROTC and majored in Spanish and education. In 1968 Chuck accepted a commission in the U.S. Marine Corps and served as a tank platoon commander in Viet Nam achieving the rank of Captain and receiving several service medals including the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with palm and frame. After Viet Nam, Chuck worked as a campus security officer at the University of Washington before entering the Bureau in June 1972. Chuck’s first office was El Centro. He was well liked and respected and enjoyed the southwest environment. He was transferred to the New York Office and assigned to the recently opened New Rochelle Resident Agency until he had the opportunity to return to El Centro.

James Maloney was born in Indio, California and raised ten miles East of El Centro in the town of Holtsville and by 1979, turning thirty, lived in the same house on Walnut Street where he had grown up. He was well liked in high school, a good student and active athlete and later attended the local community college. His mother died when he was twenty-one and his father, a career border patrol agent, left El Centro and his family for assignment elsewhere. Although not viewed as a violent person, Maloney was well known as a pacifist against the Viet Nam war and strongly supported Caesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers movement. 

Maloney was arrested during a demonstration in San Francisco and the FBI had information he was associated with the extremist Weathermen faction of the Students for a Democratic Society. Based on that information Maloney was interviewed on October 19, 1972 at the El Centro RA. (The RA was then in a different location and interviewed by agents prior to Porter and Elmore.) The interview was mildly hostile as Maloney was not forthcoming in his responses to the Agents’ questioning. Without additional specific negative intelligence information the inquiry into Maloney was later closed.

Maloney though believed that he was now being pursued by the FBI and his distrust for the U.S. Government, especially the CIA, began to fester. Far from inarticulate, Maloney later wrote letters to the editor of the local newspaper expressing his views against U.S. government intervention around the world, particularly Nicaragua and Iran.

Maloney’s hatred grew as his attraction toward communism and the likes of Castro, Che Guevara and the Irish Republican Army became an obsession.

Other personal issues drew Maloney closer to the emotional brink and radicalized him against the government.

Married in 1972 and then separated, his estranged wife had a child with another man; he still wanted her back but was rebuffed. At one point he became suicidal and was diagnosed as a depressive neurotic. Ironically he was able to hide most of his anti-government rage. Only a couple of people knew that his hatred for the government was reaching a breaking point. (An irony was that Maloney spent most of his adult years working for government agencies and at one point for the California Jobs for Progress office of the California Department of Labor, which at a time was located in the KXO building.)

Maloney made a FOIPA request that was rejected, which further enraged him and he later made an appointment with Agent Porter for 9:00am, Thursday, August 9th.. Bob, as was his nature, was willing to help him with the paperwork; but Maloney already had other ominous plans for that morning. 

The Saturday prior, August 4th, Maloney held his 30th birthday and a going away party of sorts at his house for several friends and co-workers. He told them he was planning to move to San Francisco to live with his sister and find work up north. His mood was upbeat with no hint of what was to come.
The Cleveland fugitive squad developed information that UFAP Melvin Guyon was living in the projects on the East side of the city. A former boyfriend of Guyon’s girlfriend owed her money and agreed to visit the girlfriend to allow agents an easy entry to the apartment. As was customary in those days, Agents on the squad put together a quick arrest plan for the entry and covering the back of the multi-unit building. 

Johnnie L. Oliver, originally from Illinois, began his FBI career as a file clerk at FBIHQ and after serving two years in the Army in South Korea returned to headquarters where he worked as a budget analyst while earning a Bachelor’s degree in business. He also met a coworker who he later married. Johnnie became an agent in July 1971 spending his first three years in Philadelphia and then assigned to the Cleveland office working criminal matters and becoming a member of the SWAT team. Johnnie was well liked and gregarious with an infectious sense of humor.

Johnnie and two other agents hid next to the front door of the apartment as the ex-boyfriend, using the money pretext, tried to get someone to answer.

The plan worked and as the door opened Johnnie, armed with a twelve-gauge, was the first one in. The entering agents yelled  “FBI” loudly enough for even the neighbors to hear them. Johnnie worked his way down a hallway into a back bedroom where he confronted Melvin Guyon who was holding a .32 caliber revolver and his infant as a shield. It is only speculation that Johnnie, a father of three, may have hesitated for an instant because of the child, but Guyon fired first, fatally striking Johnnie in the chest. As Johnnie fell, the shotgun discharged into the ceiling. Guyon aimed at a second agent but the gun misfired as he crashed through a small window. The second agent fired five rounds narrowly missing Guyon and one more as he escaped into the apartment complex unseen by the agents in the back of the long building. Guyon’s stomach was badly cut from the broken window.

Guyon made the eighteen blocks to another brother’s house where he patched his stomach wound, changed clothes and told his sister-in-law that “I shot the FBI and he shot at me.” On a bicycle, Guyon rode seventy-five miles East.

By the time Guyon reached Youngstown, Ohio he had already become the 368thfugitive added to the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted list. A massive investigation began with agents from Cleveland and other Divisions conducting numerous interviews and writing affidavits for arrest and search warrants and emergency orders for Title III’s and pen registers.  

By this time tragic events were already unfolding 2300 miles away. 

Maloney wrote three suicide notes, one each to his estranged wife, his family and friends. His intentions in the first one were unmistakable, “I will attempt to attack some carefully selected representative of this beast that we call a government…at least I’ll try to strike a blow before I leave.” This letter also said that he wanted his (illegitimate) son “…to be a strong man and a righteous revolutionary fighter.” The letter ended with a quote from the communist revolutionary, Che Guevara. The other two letters were childish drivel with parochial instructions. Maloney had no intention of going to prison or returning alive. 

Maloney dropped off flowers for the women where he worked and then parked in the lot adjacent to the KXO building. He made his way to the stairs with a twelve-gauge shotgun hidden in a garment bag, a .38 caliber revolver in his waistband covered by an untucked shirt and a .25 semi-automatic in his pocket. Found later in Maloney’s wallet was a note reading, “people to contact.”

Bob and Chuck arrived at the RA by 8:00am and both had been on a few telephone calls when at around 9:00am there was a call from a Yuma RA Agent wanting to speak with Bob about a case. At about the same time there was a knock at the door; the expected appointment made by Maloney for Bob to help with his FOIPA request.

As Bob opened the door he lunged at the barrel of the shotgun as a violent struggle began. The shotgun discharged into the wall as Bob forced Maloney into the hallway attempting to wrestle the weapon away. The fight was so fierce that the weapon’s stock broke in half. Chuck, still at his desk reached into his briefcase and retrieved his .357 as two shots rang out. Maloney, with Bob on top of him, reached for the .38 and fatally shot Bob twice in the chest. Chuck engaged Maloney in the doorway but was also fatally wounded, although he was able to shoot Maloney once in the chest. The carnage in the hallway was devastating and lasted only seconds. Maloney—dying—took the coward’s way out and used the last bullet on himself.

The first person to know what happened was a terrified secretary from the insurance company down the hall from the RA. She heard shots and yelling and called the El Centro Police. The caller hid under her desk and was so distraught the dispatcher first thought it may have been a bank robbery in progress but quickly put out an alert that shots were fired in the KXO building.

The first officer on the scene was an El Centro detective, as horrified as he was, it was only worse because he personally knew the two fallen Agents. The building was secured as Agents from San Diego as well as the Agent from Yuma made their way to El Centro.

Back in Cleveland Johnnie’s body was being placed into an ambulance to the taunting of denigrating epithets and clapping and cheers from local residents.

By August 16thelectronic surveillance had identified Guyon using one of two outside pay phones in the vicinity of Oak Hills and Falls Road in Youngstown. Agents from the Youngstown RA and Cleveland Office established a surveillance of the phone booths and a residence in the predominately black area of town. At approximately 9:00pm Guyon was believed to be seen exiting a bar and entering a phone booth on the corner. Back in the office a pen register alerted on that number. In order to confirm it was Guyon a black male and female agent walked down the street and confirmed it was in fact him. 

The signal was given. The plan was for a surveillance van to approach the phone booth and pin Guyon inside, but the phone booth was hit a little too hard and Guyon was able to escape again, running through a ravine and wooded back yards. Agents saw that he was reaching in his pocket and fired several shots as he fled. With agents not far behind and running as fast as he could in the dark, Guyon thought he had been shot in the face. His legs knocked out from under him as he crashed to the ground only to realize he had run full tilt into a low hanging branch. Guyon was badly injured, dislocating his jaw with a cut nearly from his mouth to his ear and the stomach wound open and bleeding again. Now very weak and knowing that agents were closing in he made his way to a local hospital where he was arrested and later held on a $1,000,000 bond. In the hospital, in a classic FBI moment, the Cleveland Special Agent in Charge said, “Melvin Guyon, you’re under arrest for the murder of Agent Johnnie Oliver.”

The Maloney investigation was soon resolved: a deranged and troubled fringe personality who acted alone.

Guyon testified at his own trial for the murder of Agent Oliver and senselessly claimed self-defense that the ex-boyfriend had hired some white guy to get him; “He shot at me so I shot at him.” Guyon was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. Guyon was later convicted of the Chicago rape and sentenced to 45-year terms on each count to run consecutive to the life sentence. *

           Services were held in both San Diego and Cleveland and on August 27th a memorial service was held at FBI Headquarters in Washington D.C. attended by Director Webster, hundreds of FBI employees and members of the agents’ families.

“In the Spirit…
Ed Woods

* In every major case there are always ironies. As of August 2019 Melvin Guyon and Leonard Peltier, (serving consecutive life sentences for the brutal murders of Special Agents Jack Coler and Ron Williams), are located in the same prison facility, USP Coleman, Florida. Although Peltier did not testify at his own trial, his attorneys claimed self-defense as well.

Saturday, July 20, 2019


Dear Supporters:

I never met Ron Williams.*

I learned of him, as did thousands of others in the FBI and law enforcement, and citizens across the country, on a fateful day in June, 1975 when the media blasted out the horrible news of the loss of two agents in a nondescript corner of South Dakota.

Learning more about him came much later through conversations with close friends and relatives and later still in an incredible video released by the Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.**

There could have been a brief moment when Ron and I may have crossed paths. We overlapped slightly as new agents and could have passed each other in the hallways at the FBI Academy in Quantico, paced each other on the running trails or even sat at the same table in the cafeteria. I'll never know.

There is a strong possibility, since we both shared a love of flying, and if the event at Jumping Bull had some how miraculously not occurred, that we would have participated together in the FBI's then fledgling aviation program. Ron was a licensed pilot and enjoyed the thrill and challenge and of taking friends and family on flying adventures to share the experience he loved so much. Certainly Ron would have volunteered to become part of that program and we could have both flown on the same major cases ("Bureau Specials" as they are called) as the FBI quickly realized that aircraft surveillances were integral components to successful investigations.

Very close and dear friends of Ron, when they all worked together in the Rapid City Resident Agency (a satellite office covering a number of SD counties and reservations out of the Minneapolis Division), gave me a box of personal items and papers they had from Ron. In the box was a little wooden toy biplane, which I understood to have been Ron's from when he was a child. At the moment it's sitting on a shelf as this tribute is being typed.

I learned from another close friend that, although challenging, life and work on the Reservations was demanding, and the Bureau was always pressed to staff the larger cities with agents. It was likely that Ron's tenure in Rapid City could have ended with a voluntary transfer to his hometown, Glendale, California, in the Los Angeles basin. Certainly, getting back to LA would have been fairly easy and something he apparently desired, not just to return to family and friends, but for a much wider variety of federal crimes to pursue, along with greater opportunities.

Ron, as was related as well, had plans to attend law school, which would have been a challenge while working cases in a major city, but certainly doable once he set his sights on that goal. Where he would have gone from there we’ll never know, but based on what we do know, perhaps continuing in the Bureau or maybe seeking a position in a major prosecutor's office or perhaps the United States Attorney's office. Or, if we are allowed to imagine further, combining his interests and talents and maybe specializing in aviation law while continuing his flying interests. We'll never know how far that would have taken him.

Ron certainly fit the personality profile of his birth sign, a Leo; ruling warmth, generosity, faithful and always showing a great deal of initiative, combined with a handsomely charming smile and engaging personality. All of which would have taken him to untold heights and achievements.

It's difficult to look beyond and speculate on what might have been, but we can see what was, and in his short twenty-eight years Ron did leave his mark on all who touched his life.

I never met Ron Williams, but I'm sure anyone who did would have been better for it.

"In the Spirit of Coler and Williams"

Ed Woods
*SA Ronald A. Williams, July 30, 1947 - June 26, 1975: Rest In Peace: His memory, bravery and sacrifice in the-line-of-duty will never be forgotten. (A favorite blog posted originally on July 30, 2015)
**Meet SA Jack R. Coler and SA Ronald A. Williams here:
Things to consider and remember regarding the lying, murderous Leonard Peltier:

Sunday, June 23, 2019


Dear supporters:

What follows is the beginning of an editorial essay written in 2000 and posted to the No Parole Peltier Association website relating to the timing of the unprovoked attack and brutal murder by Leonard Peltier of Special Agents Jack R. Coler and Ronald A. Williams. 

The details below are as valid today as they were on June 26, 1975:

Most people have heard the expression Timing is Everything. For the incident on June 26, 1975, timing WAS everything. Perhaps the most crucial and telling evidence of what happened that day at Pine Ridge comes from the words of Agent Williams himself. A number of employees in the FBI Resident Agency in Rapid City (RCRA) overheard the first radio transmissions of what the agents were facing that day. Although there has been much discussion and lengthy litigation about what exactly was said, considering that in moments of extreme stress perceptions and recollections may vary, nevertheless, one aspect of those radio transmissions is undisputed.

The book, In the Spirit of Crazy Horse reviews the timing of Agent Williams' radio calls to the RCRA and other agents but is presented for reasons other than defining the timing of those transmissions. Its purpose was to lay the groundwork for the supposed contradictions and confusion by the FBI over the (alleged and later determined to be fictitiousred pickup truck (Footnote #1). It does, however, clearly establish the initial sequence of events as Agents’ Coler and Williams followed a vehicle—which they believed contained fugitive Jimmy Eagle, onto the Jumping Bull property.

All those who overheard the transmissions are consistent over how rapidly the situation developed.

"...when a number of people monitoring the FBI channels heard an increasingly urgent series of transmissions." (ITSOCH p. 173-176)

As Waring (an FBI Agent) recalled Williams's words...There appears to be some Indians in the vehicle and they appear to have rifles. Then almost instantly, he said he had come under fire and immediately requested help from any units that were listening at the time. It was basically a continuous conversation by him on the radio. He continued by indicating that "they are on the ridge above us and firing on us." He was noticeably out of breath at that point and his voice had a little more excitement in it and he announced that, "I've been hit."

Agent Gary Adams responding from about fifteen miles away overheard Agent Williams, "There are several guys around this house...and it looks like they're going to take off. They're getting into that pickup. I hope you have a lot of gas (presumably radioed from Agent Williams to Agent Coler)." "It looks like those guys are going to shoot at us! Within two minutes, Adams heard gunfire on his radio. Then Williams yelled, "We have been hit."

FBI stenographer Linda Price in the RCRA overheard Agent Williams state, "We're following a red vehicle, you want to keep an eye out for it." There was a pause for approximately 30 seconds, when SA Williams transmitted, "I hope you have enough gas." The next transmission made by SA Williams were words to the effect, "We got a problem here." There was another pause for approximately 30 seconds, [then] "get up on the hill, we're being fired at."

Agent John McCarthy in the Rapid City office heard "something about chasing a red jeep," and FBI stenographer Ann M. Johnson heard Williams say, "There is something wrong here, we are being fired on," followed by the emergency exchange between Williams and Adams.

All of these transmissions were overheard within SEVERAL MINUTES before and after 12:00 noon and all reasonably within a TEN MINUTE period.

Given what the listeners overheard from Agent Williams and the responding agent (Adams), and presuming that their recollections may differ, one element is consistent, they all heard something during the same brief period of time.

The above transmissions establish, with reasonable certainty that within moments of driving onto the Jumping Bull property, they immediately recognized that they were in danger and began taking fire from the individuals in the vehicle they were following and from elsewhere in the compound. Within those minutes they had no time apparently to turn around and depart Jumping Bull, but attempted to defend themselves.

Clearly, based on the overheard conversations, the agents did not stop, exit their vehicles, and start shooting (as Peltier has repeatedly and fictitiously claimed). Their shooting was a result of trying to defend themselves from attack. They knew from the outset of driving onto the reservation that they were out-numbered and ill equipped for an armed confrontation with only their service revolvers with them inside the vehicles (more powerful weapons still in the trunk). They were miles away from any responding assistance and in an understandably hostile area with an AIM camp nearby. Suggestions by Peltier and his supporters that the agents entered Jumping Bull and started a shootout belies what actually happened...

* * *

Please see the remainder of the editorial essay, “Timing is Everything” (and the companion essay that follows it, “The Smoking Gun”) available from the NPPA homepage or

“In the Spirit of Coler and Williams”
Ed Woods

1) The lie of Mr. X and the red pickup truck:

Monday, June 10, 2019


Dear Supporters:

The ILPDC and Peltier have been fairly quiet lately.

There could be several explanations; he’s preparing for the Washington State civil suit scheduled for early next year, dealing with I.R.S. issues regarding a highly questionable 501(c)3 “tax deductible” claim,* his attorneys have advised that blasting out unsupported notices to supporters is fraught with problems when they provide conflicting facts and disprovable claims, or maybe, he’s given up fighting a lost cause. 

In any case we’ll just wait until Peltier goes public and sticks his prison sneakers in his mouth again.           

Peltier’s Facebook page is a little stale except for a ridiculously frail article by Robert Dean of Rebel Noise. And that is exactly what it is “noise” by repeating the same “fatally flawed” alleged facts that Peltier has been peddling for years. Folklore and myth that has been debunked repeatedly and not worth the time or effort to correct here, once again.**

They did though add a little extra falsity regarding Wesley Cook.***

“In the Spirit of Coler and Williams”
Ed Woods

(NPPA Blog March 8, 2019)
***A 2015 excerpt from the NPPA website:
Regarding Wesley Cook:

If all this sounds painfully familiar, it should.
Then there it is, clear and unequivocal, Peltier and the LPDC place Peltier in the same very close and select company as Mumia and McVeigh; cold and remorseless killers. They are now connected, rightfully so, for an even greater reason, they are all miserably guilty.

Tuesday, April 30, 2019


Dear Supporters:

This journey began on April 30, 2000 and as declared from the very beginning on the homepage of the No Parole Peltier Association website:

The stated purpose of the NPPA is to: 1) Honor the sacrifice of Special Agents Jack Coler and Ron Williams who were brutally murdered in the line of duty, and 2) Respond to the erroneous statements and allegations made by the Leonard Peltier Defense Committee. The NPPA will forego political rhetoric and name-calling and concentrate on the record of the events. Its central focus will be to review and analyze public statements made by Leonard Peltier, which further indicate his guilt, and to provide interested readers and researchers with another view, long missing from the public debate, of this very serious matter. The NPPA opposes parole or clemency for Leonard Peltier. IMPORTANT NOTE: It is critically important for any concerned reader and researcher to review the Court Decisions regarding Peltier's conviction and appeals. It is within those decisions that each and every issue and allegation raised by Peltier, and repeated by Peltier’s Committee(s), has been addressed and resolved.

We held true to that commitment, keeping the torch lit to honor the memory and sacrifice of FBI Agents Jack R. Coler and Ronald A. Williams.

What follows is a brief summary of events, presented in NPPA Blogs since April 2018:

Peltier whines and complains about having a cellmate.

Peltier makes a completely false statement regarding an initial appeal with the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals.

Peltier maneuvers for a compassionate release.

Peltier wins and loses in federal court regarding the removal of his paintings on display for sale on government property in Washington State.

The NPPA recognizes the birthday of murdered Special Agent Ronald A. Williams.

The NPPA acknowledges the 43rdanniversary of the attack and killing of Agents Jack Coler and Ron Williams.

A review of the FBI’s Hall of Honor recognizing Special Agents who have been killed in the line of duty as a result of adversarial action.

Comments on the recent debates of the Redskin issue.

FBI Director Wray makes an historic visit to Indian Country and meets with Native American leaders. There was no mention of Peltier.

NPPA supporters are provided with a summary of “important reminders” regarding the federal appellate court decisions that “Peltier had personally killed the two agents” and that he “Got a fair trial, not a perfect trial, but a fair trial.”

Recognition of Jack R. Coler’s birthday and that he may Rest in Peace. 

Last of three blogs detailing that former U.S. Attorney James Reynolds’ support for Leonard Peltier was erroneous and misplaced. 

As the NPPA enters its 20thyear every effort will continue to confront Peltier’s false statements concerning his conviction and consecutive life sentences (which have never been altered after numerous appeals) and bring to light his public statements that are false or misleading while confronting the decades of Peltier myth and folklore.

“In the Spirit of Coler and Williams”
Ed Woods

1) Correction: In the 3,022 word March 8, 2019 NPPA blog entitled “Why Peltier is the Worst?”  (A straight-forward opinion that turned into an essay), there was a an incorrect word in an effective declarative sentence which should have read, “Lies are still lies no matter how they are gift-wrapped.”  This has been corrected on the original website blog.

2) Regarding the January 13, 2019 NPPA Blog entitled “PELTIER: PUBLIC CHARITY? PART 2, INUREMENT” that provided details regarding Peltier/IPLDC approval for 501(c)3 (tax-deductible) status and reviewed the legal use of IRS Form 13909 (Tax-Exempt Organizational Complaint-referral): On 3/6/19 a letter was received from the IRS acknowledging  in part: “The IRS has an ongoing program to ensure compliance with the Internal Revenue Code (IRC). We’ll consider the information you submitted in this program.” A second letter dated April 4, 2019 added “We appreciate your bringing this matter to our attention.”

3) Regarding the January 8, 2019 NPPA blog entitled “PELTIER: WANTS A TRANSFER” on March 9, 2019 the ILPDC announced, in part: “On Monday March 4th, 2019 Leonard Peltier was advised that his request for a transfer had been unceremoniously denied by the United States Bureau of Prisons…”

“44 years is too damn long for an innocent man to be locked up...” (NPPA comment: Hardly innocent!)

“We plan to demand he receive appropriate medical care, and to continue to uncover and utilize every legal mechanism to secure his release. To do these things we need money to support the legal work…” (NPPA comment: emphasis added—and it is more than curious that since the complaint to the IRS about likely misuse of its non-profit status, there is now no mention that any donations to assist Peltier’s “legal mechanism to secure his release” would be tax-deductible.)

“Please call the ILPDC National office or email us for a copy of the postcard you can send to the White House. We need your help to ask President Trump for Leonard's freedom.” (NPPA comment: Save the postage. The likelihood of President Trump considering a Peltier commutation is zero.)

Friday, March 8, 2019


Dear Supporters:

In response to a question regarding why we consider Leonard Peltier the worst and most vile of those who killed FBI Agents in the Line of Duty, the following illustrates that Peltier was—and will forever remain, a remorseless cold-blooded murderer:

During the over 100-year history of the Federal Bureau of Investigation there have been 36 Special Agents killed in the line of duty. These Agents are memorialized on the Wall of Honor as FBI Service Martyrs at FBI headquarters and in field offices throughout the country.

Although the total number is relatively small, this is in keeping with the Bureau’s mission versus the inordinate number of police officers shot and killed in the line of duty—eight in January 2019 alone.

Police officers, more often than not, are confronted with life and death, deadly-force split-second decisions. By contrast Bureau arrests are typically made after months or years of investigation and with the advantage of being able to plan and exercise the authority to arrest and minimize potential risk.

Of the number of Agents killed in the line of duty, several of which involved more than one assailant, nine of those were killed during the commission of their crimes, four committed suicide (one was fatally shot but committed suicide before he would have died), four were captured, sentenced and executed, six were captured, convicted, received life sentences and died in prison, and five are still incarcerated.  Also considered here are the five instances where two Agents were killed during the same confrontation and three who were killed on the same day in separate incidents.  

One of those incarcerated, ironically, is serving a life sentence in the same federal prison facility as Peltier, one remains on death row and one is scheduled for release in 2022. 

The names of the assailants involved are all but lost to history except for a couple of infamous killers from the gangland era—Pretty Boy Floyd and Baby Face Nelson. The 1930s was a dangerous time for all law enforcement. In the 1930s, during the days of G-Men, Tommy guns and running boards, nine Agents were killed in the line-of-duty. 

No one would remember, or even care to recall the names of the other assailants, except perhaps the families of the assailants themselves, but they are certainly remembered by the family and friends of the deceased Agents. 

What does this history have to do with Leonard Peltier?

Well, a lot actually.

Most significant, except for Peltier, is that none of those still incarcerated for their crimes have been heard from. 

There is one aspect of the Peltier matter that cannot be overlooked. If Peltier’s name was Joe Smith and his brutal slaying of Agents Coler and Williams happened, in let’s say, Pennsylvania, no one would care or remember his name. He would be just another of the nameless lifers.

But since this occurred on an Indian Reservation, provoked by Peltier and other cowards of the American Indian Movement, Peltier was successful in milking his notoriety for all it was worth, or all he could conjure up and fabricate about his alleged innocence while pitifully claiming to be a political prisoner. This logically gave way to the myth and folklore that followed. But for the fact that this occurred on Pine Ridge, Peltier’s name would have been relegated to the dustbin of criminal justice history.

Is it accurate to call Peltier and the other AIM members that day cowards?

The answer is simple. It cannot be forgotten that there was an eyewitness to the events that rapidly unfolded on the Jumping Bull property. Agent Williams was on the Bureau radio calling for assistance and describing what was happening. It was apparent that they were about to be fired upon by those in the vehicle they followed, and as the situation developed they were caught in a deadly crossfire and pinned down in an open field by rifle wielding AIM assailants.

Both Agents were wounded. Ron Williams waved his shirt as a sign of surrender, but this was ignored, and then he bravely gave aid to his critically wounded partner. Based on the defensive wound to his right hand, Agent Williams was still alive when Peltier shot him and Agent Coler at point blank range with his AR-15.

Both agents were shot in the face, yet when their bodies were discovered they were found facing the muddy ground. In Indian lore, touching and rolling over a vanquished enemy to face Mother Earth ensures they will not meet the Creator in the afterlife. Among those who were there, Peltier, Joe Stuntz, Robert Robideau, Dino Butler and likely others, know who, in a manner of speaking, disgustingly counted coup, adding to the carnage by manhandling the mutilated bodies. 

Years later in an unrelated matter, sworn testimony was given regarding Peltier’s admission and description of the Agents’ murders. Peltier was quoted,
“The m----------r was begging for his life but I shot him anyway.” (Fn. 1)

To any rational human being these are the actions of cowards.

Peltier offered, in his sixth-grade level reader, Prison Writings (p.14) his own published words that he viewed as an apology. Everyone is encouraged to read this “apology” which in reality is nothing more than self-centered aggrandizement that was viewed as a profound insult to both the Coler and Williams families. 

However, the issue of whether Peltier ever proffered an apology is settled.

In a June 26, 2017* motion filed in federal district court, Peltier (not pro se, but through his attorney) stated for the record “Although Peltier does not apologize for killing agents Coler and Williams as he maintains his innocence, he does express deep remorse to what happened to them and the pain that caused their families.”(Emphasis added) 

To show remorse Peltier would have to acknowledge that he regrets his actions. He has not. His actions would be what he would consider shameful, hurtful or violent. He has not. Remorse is also tied to feelings of guilt. He has shown none. Peltier could express remorse through an apology, but since it is a matter of record in federal court that he has not apologized while feigning innocence, Peltier remains, as always, remorseless.

On the matter of innocence:

Anyone who challenges that the following quotes were taken out of context is pedestrian in their thinking and lacks an understanding of the fundamental significance of Peltier’s public statements. The essential element here is one of proximity

None of the following direct public admissions from Peltier remove him from the murder scene, from the slaughter at Jumping Bull.

In the same 2017 federal court filing Peltier challenges the following quotes being attributed to him as creating a false picture of the actual facts and that conclusions based on Peltier’s public statements may still imply a false assertion of fact.

“I seen Joe when he pulled it out of the trunk and I looked at him when he put it on, and he gave me a smile”

In the court filing Peltier provided the source from where this quote was taken, Peter Matthiessen’s, In the Spirit of Crazy Horse (p. 552). Readers are invited to review that page for themselves. Within it they will find that the most crucial part is the above quote from Leonard Peltier to Peter Matthiessen about Joe Stuntz.

For the situationally challenged, it is not difficult to place this quote firmly within the context of the circumstances at that moment. Picture the scene:

On the Jumping Bull property there are two late model bullet-riddled government vehicles. Peltier, Joe Stuntz and others are gathered around stealing whatever they can. Stuntz grabs agent Jack Coler’s FBI jacket from the trunk, and as Peltier tells us, smiles as he puts it on. At that moment at their feet—lying face down in the mud—are two lifeless bodies. Two dead FBI agents with their faces blown away, who had been first wounded, rendered defenseless and then murdered at point-blank range. 

That was the context of Peltier’s, “I seen Joe” statement that hardly implies a false assertion of fact. 

In the 2017 federal court filing Peltier further claimed that the following quote was drastically edited from longer passages that provide context and create a false picture of the actual facts, and if those facts are either incorrect or incomplete, or if the assessment of them is erroneous, the statement may still imply a false assertion of fact.

“And really, if necessary, I’d do it all over again because it was the right thing to do.”

This quote was taken from Peltier’s February 6, 2010 public statement on the anniversary of his arrest in Canada. (Fn. 2)

Standing alone, this statement could be benign as Peltier laments and whines about his then thirty-four year incarceration.

Nevertheless, in order to understand the significance of this statement it is important to place it within its proper context. There can be no argument with the fact that one of the "whole series of events" Peltier describes is the Incident at Oglala, the June 26, 1975 cold-blooded murder of Agents’ Coler and Williams on the Jumping Bull property. By even mentioning Joe Stuntz Peltier clearly makes the relevance of his comments within the context of that day.

Peltier’s references to his commitment and because it was the right thing to do, can be neither ignored nor removed from the events he's talking about—those at Jumping Bull. And since he'd do it all over again, he's telling us that he understands what that commitment meant to his life and the last thirty-four years. 

Most significantly though, he is not excluding anything. Peltier is offering
no exceptions to his admission. It's all there.

Also, in the 2017 filing in U.S. District Court Peltier stated for the record, “Support for Leonard Peltier comes not only because of the work he has done for his people, but because his imprisonment comes as the result of the government not knowing who killed Agents Coler and Williams.” 

Peltier proffers, once again, the same frivolous assertion that the government had somehow conceded he wasn’t personally responsible for the Agents’ deaths.

The courts consistently concluded otherwise:

“Peltier’s arguments fail because their underlying premises are fatally flawed. (A) The government tried the case on alternative theories; it asserted that Peltier personally killed the agents at point blank range, but that if he had not done so, then he was equally guilty of the murder as an aider and abettor.” 
(8th Circuit Court of Appeals, July 7, 1993)

The Government’s statement at a prior oral argument, upon which Peltier relies, was not a concession.” “In any event, this eight-word comment in response to Judge Heaney‘s statements, is a totally inadequate basis for asserting that the government conceded that it had not proved that Peltier personally shot the agents at close range…” 
(8th Circuit Court of Appeals, July 7, 1993)

“The direct and circumstantial evidence of Peltier’s guilt was strong…” 
“…Peltier’s contention of manufactured evidence are far from convincing.”
(8th Circuit Court of Appeals, 9/14/78) 

The record as a whole leaves no doubt that the jury accepted the government’s theory that Peltier had personally killed the two agents, after they were seriously wounded, by shooting them at point blank range with an AR-15 rifle.”
(8thCircuit Court of Appeals, 12/18/02) (Emphasis added)

In the same court filing Peltier cherry-picks a negative quote from a federal court decision that had absolutely nothing to do with the underlying murder charges against him but was an appeal for relief from an adverse decision by the U.S. Parole Commission. (It should be noted that throughout the numerous appeals in the Peltier saga there was only one other negative comment, and that was relegated to the status of a footnote, and with a clarification. (Fn. 3)

Peltier quotes from a 11/4/03, 10thCircuit Court of Appeals decision:

“Much of the government’s behavior at Pine Ridge Reservation and in its prosecution of Mr. Peltier is to be condemned. The Government withheld evidence. It intimidated witnesses. These Facts are not disputed.”

Actually, these “facts” were disputed and this gratuitous ad hominem statement by this court also included a thorough damning of Peltier’s actions and prior claims, however, Peltier, et. al. as they are habituated to, chose not to provide them, (Fn. 4):

Notably absent from Peltier’s court filing regarding the issue of “alternative theories” was; “Were that the case, the Commission, based on the evidence before it, could still reach the conclusion it did.”

"Previous federal court decisions provided the (Parole) Commission with ample facts to support its conviction that Peltier personally shot Agent Coler and Williams." 

 “And the Commission’s choice of the word ‘execution’ in describing the murders is quite apt. While Mr. Peltier asserts ‘[t]he Commission identified no plausible evidence that [he] shot the agents after they were incapacitated,’ this statement is simply not true. The evidence linking Mr. Peltier to these crimes is enumerated above. The most damning evidence, the .223 shell casing found in Agent Coler's trunk, may be more equivocal after the surfacing of the October 2nd teletype, but it has not been 'ruled out,' as Mr. Peltier contends. There is no direct evidence that Mr. Peltier shot the agents because no one testified they saw him pull the trigger. But as we stated above, and restate here, the body of circumstantial evidence underlying the Commission's decision is sufficient for the purpose of rational basis review." 

“After the evidentiary hearing on Mr. Peltier's first habeas petition, the district court in North Dakota held that the October 2nd teletype did not cast doubt on the connection between the .223 casing found in Agent Coler's trunk and the AR-15 linked to Mr. Peltier. On appeal, the Eighth Circuit asserted the casing ‘had in fact been extracted from the . . . AR-15’ [linked to Mr. Peltier]."
(Emphasis added)

* * *

Peltier has never been confused by the truth, but we will not ignore the obvious. If Peltier were truly innocent he could easily repeat the events as he experienced them. Instead, he fabricated his years-long only alibi that someone they knew, the infamous Mr. X in the red pickup killed the agents. Remember too, in Redford’s film, Incident at Oglala, Peltier said, “This story is true.” Well, it wasn’t. (Fn. 5)

Peltier, the self proclaimed public figure who arguably created a successful campaign of myth and folklore, would not come under scrutiny and have his public statements challenged if he for once admitted the truth. As a “public figure” Peltier forfeits many of the protections afforded private citizens in matters of defamation. Lies are still lies no matter how they are gift-wrapped. (Fn. 6)

Peltier, for as much as he professes, is not the realistic symbol of the historical ill treatment of First Americans. Peltier is the antithesis of the brave warriors of the past.

Further, it matters a great deal that Peltier has shamelessly denigrated the memory of Agents Coler and Williams by claiming that they were deliberately sacrificed (Prison Writings, p. 129):

“As documents released twenty years later, in 1995, through the Freedom of Information Act, confirmed, a virtual army—lawmen, GOONS, SWAT teams, vigilantes, BIA police, you name it—had been gathering in the area for a planned paramilitary assault on the Pine Ridge Reservation. And now the day had finally come. This raid had obviously been preplanned. Maybe they figured they could come in and finish us off after the two agents had drawn our fire, giving them the excuse they needed.” (A totally fabricated lie; Fn. 7)

Of all those Agents killed in the line of duty, the most vile and depraved act was the wounding and calculated murder of Special Agents Jack R. Coler and Ronald A. Williams on June 26, 1975 by Leonard Peltier on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Peltier’s vicious acts—validated through numerous appeals, confirms that he remains a remorseless cold-blooded murderer. (Fn. 8).  

“In the Spirit of Coler and Williams”
Ed Woods

1) Press Release, United States Attorney, District of North Dakota: “…In 2004 Arlo Looking Cloud was tried in South Dakota for the late 1975 AIM related murder of Anna Mae Aquash. Witness Darlene Nichols testified that, in October or November of 1975, she was travelling in a motor home with Leonard Peltier, her husband, AIM leader Dennis Banks, Anna Mae Aquash, and others. On one occasion when they were in the State of Washington, Peltier admitted his involvement in the killings of the agents. Darlene Nichols testified that Leonard Peltier, “…started talking about June 26, and he put his hand like this and started talking about the two FBI agents…he said the m----------r was begging for his life, but I shot him anyway.”
(AIM member Anna Mae Aquash, who had been threatened at gunpoint by Peltier suspecting that she was an FBI informant—she was not—but nonetheless on orders of AIM leadership she was kidnapped, raped, murdered and dumped in a ravine.)
1a)Looking Cloud Trial Transcript at 144-145; In reference to a statement made to the witness by Leonard Peltier: Prosecutor: “Exactly what did he say?” Witness: “He said the M----- F----- was begging for his life, but I shot him anyway.”
2) Peltier statement 2/6/2010:
Editorial essay re 2/6/2010 statement:
3) Negative court comments, see section #20:
4) U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, 11/4/03:
5) The alibi lie of Mr. X:
7) The fabrications of a Preplanned paramilitary assault: The Sanctioned Memo:
Further, “The Smoking gun and 23 reasons why it can’t be true:”
 8) Peltier conflates advocacy (keeping the torch lit and honoring the memory of Agents Coler and Williams) with defamation. We will, however, let the facts detailed above speak for themselves and allow reasonable people to make their own judgments.  
* Ironically, the “Plaintiff’s Response to Defendant Landberg (sic) and Woods’ 12(b)(6) and Anti-Slapp Motion” submitted to the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington was filed on the 42ndanniversary of the murder of Jack Coler and Ron Williams.